I cannot ping the Windows 2008 R2 server by hostname from Windows XP Home machines, but I can ping it from Windows 7 Ultimate machines. I already disabled ipv6. I need to access a shared folder: \server\a
All computers are on the same local network, there is no DNS in use. Just every computer in the same Workgroup.
Any ideas why?
I have heard that the problem could be that different systems chose different Master browsers.
Judging by your comments that you aren't using DNS, your problem is NetBIOS name resolution.
NetBIOS over TCP/IP is disabled in Windows Server 2008 R2 by default, however it is the only way for XP to handle local name resolution without a DNS server. This problem does not exist for newer OSes on your network, because they use LLTD and not NetBIOS.
You can enable the NetBIOS responder in the WINS section of the IPv4 network settings:
You also need to make sure that the Computer Browser service is started and that Windows Firewall is allowing inbound IPv4 NetBIOS traffic.
So here's the issue. I have two different computers behind the same network. Both have the same gateway, IP address prefixes, etc.
This computer can ping and tracert out of the network to another computer I'm trying to reach
This computer can ping that out-of-network computer, but cannot traceroute to it.
This makes me believe that it is nothing to do with firewalls, but with the OS configuration.
The output of the route command:
Kernel IP routing table
Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface
192.168.0.0 * 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0
169.254.0.0 * 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 eth0
default 192.168.0.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0
Any ideas as to what the issue might be?
That's because Windows and Linux implement traceroute differently.
On Windows, it uses ICMP Echo packets with varying time-to-live settings to figure out intermediary hops.
On Linux, it uses UDP packets with varying time-to-live settings to figure out intermediary hops.
Some networks allow one or both, or none. Networks that allow ICMP but not UDP will behave differently. Ping on linux uses the same ICMP Echo packets that Windows uses, which explains why that works but not Traceroute.
Also, different traceroute programs behave differently. Not all linuxes use UDP for that. So this is not universal.